Bone marrow transplantation aims to replace bone marrow damaged by some diseases such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, and some various genetic diseases such as thalassemia and multiple myeloma.
Table of Contents
- How is a bone marrow transplantation in turkey performed?
- What are the stages of bone marrow transplant in turkey?
- What are the risks of bone marrow transplant in turkey?
How is a bone marrow transplantation in turkey performed?
Bone marrow transplantation in turkey depends on replacing unhealthy blood-forming cells with healthy cells. Hematopoietic cells (stem cells) are immature cells that grow into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. These cells are found in the soft tissue inside your bones, called bone marrow. When the cells mature, they leave the bone marrow and enter to the bloodstream.
Before the transplant, you receive chemotherapy and sometimes radiation to destroy diseased cells and marrow. The healthy stem cells are then given to you.
bone marrow transplantation in turkey is not a surgical operation. The new cells enter the bloodstream through a catheter or tube into a vein. Such as getting blood or medicine through a vein. From here, the cells find their way to the bone marrow.
What are the types of bone marrow transplantation in turkey? Which type is best for you?
There are two main types of bone marrow transplants in istanbul:
- Autologous transplantation: It is possible to remove stem cells from your body and transplant them later, after removing any damaged or diseased cells.
- Allogeneic transplantation: blood-forming cells donated by another person. Cells can come from:
A family member can have HLAs as closely matched as a sibling. Or it could match half of your HLAs, such as a parent or child. It can come from an unrelated adult donor or from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby.
The doctor of bone marrow transplantation in turkey will tell you which type of transplant, whether autologous or allogeneic, and which cell source is best for you. That depends on some factors, like:
- The disease you are suffering from and its stage.
- Your general health.
What diseases can be treated with bone marrow transplantation in turkey?
Bone marrow transplantation in turkey are used to treat cases where the bone marrow has been damaged and is no longer able to produce healthy blood cells.
Bone marrow transplantation in turkey can also be performed to replace blood cells that have been damaged or destroyed as a result of intensive cancer treatment.
Conditions that a bone marrow transplantation in turkey can be used to treat include:
- Aplastic anemia (bone marrow failure).
- Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects white blood cells.
- Lymphoma: Another type of cancer that affects white blood cells.
- Multiple myeloma: Cancer that affects plasma cells.
- Certain blood, immune system, and metabolic disorders including sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, and Hurler syndrome.
What are the stages of bone marrow transplant in turkey?
The bone marrow transplant in turkey consists of 5 main stages:
Tests and examinations: to evaluate your general health level.
- Electrocardiogram is a simple test used to check the electrical activity of the heart.
Cardiac ultrasound is a test used to examine the heart and nearby blood vessels.
- X-rays and/or CT scans to check the condition of organs such as the lungs and liver.
- Blood tests to check the level of blood cells and evaluate how well the liver and kidneys are working.
- Coronavirus testing You and your donor may be tested for Coronavirus and if either test is positive, the transplant may be postponed.
- If you have cancer, you may need to have a biopsy (removal of a small sample of cancer cells and analysis). It can show whether the cancer is under control (in remission) and whether there is a high risk of recurrence after the transplant.
Harvesting: After tests are performed to check your general health, the stem cells that will be used for the transplant must be removed and stored.
There are three basic ways in which stem cells can be collected:
Bloodstream: where stem cells are removed from the blood using a special machine.
Bone marrow: A procedure is performed to remove a sample of bone marrow from the hip bone.
Umbilical cord blood: donated blood from the umbilical cord and placenta of a newborn baby as a source of stem cells.
It may be possible to remove stem cells from your blood or bone marrow and transplant them later after removing any damaged or cancerous cells.
If this is not possible, stem cells from the donor's blood or bone marrow are usually used.
Conditioning treatment: Treatment with high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiotherapy will be needed before stem cell transplantation. in order to:
- Destroying existing bone marrow cells to make room for the transplanted tissue.
- Destroying any existing cancer cells.
- Stopping your immune system from working, which reduces the risk of transplant rejection.
As part of conditioning treatment, you will be given a combination of medications, a tube called a central line will usually be inserted into a large vein near your heart. Therefore, the medicine is transferred to your body without the need for a large number of injections.
The conditioning process usually takes about a week or two weeks. You may need to stay in the hospital throughout the treatment period.
Conditioning treatment can cause a number of side effects. It is usually temporary. Your doctor will discuss all the risks with you.
Stem cell transplantation: Bone marrow transplantation in turkey is usually performed a day or two after the end of conditioning treatment. The stem cells will slowly pass into your body through the central line. This takes a few hours. The transplant will not be painful and you will be awake all the time.
Hospitalization: Once the transplant is completed, you will need to stay in the hospital for a few weeks while you wait for the stem cells to settle in your marrow and start make new blood cells.
during this period:
- You will feel weak, and may Suffer from diarrhea, vomiting and/or loss of appetite.
- You are given fluids by mouth or through a tube running from your nose to your stomach (nasogastric tube) to prevent malnutrition.
- Regular blood transfusions, as you will have a low number of red blood cells.
- Regular platelet transfusion, as you will have a low number of platelets.
- Stay in a private, germ-free room. Visitors may need to wear protective clothing to prevent infection, as you will have a low number of infection-resistant white blood cells.
Many people are healthy enough to leave the hospital within a period of one to three months after a bone marrow transplant in turkey. However, if you develop complications such as infections, you may have to stay in the hospital longer.
Even after you return home, you will still be at risk for infections for a year or more, because it may take some time for your immune system to return to full strength.
If your donated stem cells are transplanted, you will usually need to take medicines called immunosuppressants that prevent your immune system from working too strongly. This is to reduce the risk of your body attacking the transplanted cells or to reduce the risk of the transplanted cells attacking other cells in your body.
What are the risks of bone marrow transplant in turkey?
Bone marrow transplants in turkey are complex procedures and carry significant risks. It is important to be aware of the potential risks and benefits before starting treatment.
Potential problems you may encounter during and after a bone marrow transplant in turkey include:
Graft-versus-host disease: Sometimes, the transplanted cells recognize the recipient's cells as "foreign" and attack them. GVHD can occur within a few months of transplantation, or sometimes after a year or two years. The condition is usually mild but it can sometimes be life-threatening.
Symptoms of graft-versus-host disease can include:
- Skin rash and itching.
- Dry mouth, dry skin and dry eyes.
- shortness of breath.
- Joint pain.
- Yellowing of the sclera and skin, although this may be less noticeable on brown or black skin (jaundice).
Low blood cell count: In preparation for a bone marrow transplant in turkey, you will need chemotherapy to destroy damaged or diseased blood cells. They will eventually be replaced by the transplanted stem cells, and until your body starts producing healthy blood cells again, you may be at risk of:
- Iron deficiency anemia, A lack of red blood cells can make you feel tired and short of breath. This can be treated with regular blood transfusions.
- Excessive bleeding or bruising caused by a lack of platelets. You may need a platelet transfusion.
- Infections due to a lack of white blood cells and any immunosuppressive medication you take means that your body is unable to fight infections. You may be given antibiotics to prevent or treat any bacterial infections.
Side effects of chemotherapy:
- Feeling sick.
- Mouth ulcers.
- Hair loss.
When is the best time to have a bone marrow transplantation in turkey?
Planning for transplant takes time, so your doctor may start the process early, even if you're still considering other treatments.
In general, transplants are most successful when:
- The disease is at primary phases.
- It must be non-accidental.
- The disease is under control after treatment.
- Good general health.
As with any procedure, the prognosis and survival can vary greatly from person to person. Continuous follow-up is essential for the patient after bone marrow transplant in turkey.
New ways to improve treatment and reduce complications and side effects of bone marrow transplantation in istanbul are constantly being discovered. To find out bone marrow transplant cost in turkey call medicsey.